Features of formation of vocal and performing skills of Chinese singers in China and in Ukrainian higher education institutions
Keywords:system of vocal education, Chinese students, methods of vocal training
Relevance of the study. The article considers peculiarities of professional singing education, the foundation for which was laid in ancient China and outlines the possibility of their incorporation into the process of developing European style singing technique, which is relevant for the development of Chinese vocal art and improvement of the training of Chinese students in Ukraine. The purpose of the article is to analyze the peculiarities of previous singing and listening experience, singing and performance training of Chinese university applicants in order to include them in the singing educational process while studying at Ukrainian higher education institutions. Literature review. Various aspects of the peculiarities of Chinese students' preparation for vocal and professional activity in higher educational establishments of Ukraine were researched by N. Koehn, Lou Yankhua, Zhang Yanfen and others. Problems of modern vocal education in People’s Republic of China and ways of national and European tendencies interaction in the development of vocal education in China were considered by Liu Baosia, Yang Bo, Wu Yifang, Shen Xiang. Research methods. Methodological basis of the study lies in the retrospective analytical approach, which allows to reveal the features characteristic to the methodology of preparing singers for the national vocal genres performance, as well as in the comparative approach, on the basis of which a comparison of the European vocal training system and the search for modern specialists of China in the process of Chinese bel canto technique development is performed. Results. The author characterizes peculiarities of the folk song genre and the genre of the Beijing opera, as well as specifics of vocal and technical skills in the following genres: vocal breathing with support for the lower abdomen, involvement of the cranial and nasal resonators, singing in a high vocal formant, combined with neutral palate position, which brings to a glide nasal sound and a “flat”, sharp sound. Characterization is given to the new trends that emerged in the late XIX century in the field of Chinese vocal art in connection with a new cultural openness policy, a focus on updating national vocal art based on European traditions and combining them with specific features of Chinese vocal techniques. The range of tasks that require special attention in the process of teaching Chinese students at Ukrainian pedagogical universities is identified: expansion of vocal and stylistic basis; enrichment of auditory experience and ability to analyze and interpret vocal works independently; improvement of skills to solmizate and self-mastering the musical text of the work, its comparison with the accompaniment part; ability to analyze texture, features of harmonious language; stimulation of artistic thinking and creative activity independence, mastering the skills of articulation of works in foreign languages, the need for vocal and technical skills restructuring, in particular sound formation techniques, formation of high vocal position, involvement of all resonators, mastering legato singing skills. Discussion. The author considers the features of the modern higher vocal education system in China and the disadvantages manifested in insufficient number of specialized educational institutions, the limitation of the curriculum, the amount of hours allocated for individual vocal classes, the lack of highly professional singing teachers, which in general results negatively on the quality of bachelor students’ professional vocal training. Novelty. Outlines typical difficulties that Chinese master degree students face in the process of vocal and performing skills mastering at Ukrainian pedagogical universities. These difficulties relate to the problems of adaptive and psychological, generally cultural character (entering a different cultural environment), insufficient level of theoretical musical, instrumental, artistically performing and vocally technical training. Conclusions. Singing teachers of Ukrainian educational institutions must be aware of the existing differences between European and Chinese methods of teaching singing, and this awareness should facilitate a deeper understanding of the problems faced by Chinese university applicants and the development of effective methods for overcoming those problems. Significance. The solution of the outlined problems should contribute to increase of the Ukrainian vocal school competitiveness under the conditions of the world educational space internationalization, as well as to improve the vocal and performing artistry of Chinese singers.
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